Ceramics are a material that is frequently used in construction. They are made from a combination of minerals, usually silica sand, a clay binder, some impurities, and up to 30% water. The silica re-crystallizes to form a glassy material with increased density, strength, hardness, resistance to chemicals and frost, and dimensional stability when fired at a temperature higher than that of bricks.

Water is pushed out during firing, but drying before firing can reduce this from 30 percent to 2 to 5 percent. Products with this low water content are powder-molded before being fired for days or weeks at 1,800-2,000 degrees, depending on the ceramic and process details. Ceramics can be glazed or appear as if they have been fired.

Because they won’t oxidize further in the air and remain environmentally stable, these materials are cost-effective to maintain. When they are combined with other materials, most commonly fixings that are highly stressed and susceptible to corrosion, problems are likely to arise. The outcome can be dramatic if the fixings fail. Ceramics, in contrast to metals, do not exhibit ductile behavior. Their flexible cutoff causes them to flop in a fragile manner.

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